by Diane Spicer
Safe high altitude hiking doesn't just happen.
It's a result of planning, conditioning, staying alert, and making smart decisions.
Let's take those one at a time, so you'll have a plan for how to prepare for a high altitude hike.
Note: For the sake of discussion, let's define a high altitude hike as anything over 7500 feet.
If you're coming from sea level, though, it could be as low as 6,000 feet.
Keep in mind that your individual physiology will dictate how well (or not) you handle elevation gain within a short period of time.
And here's more bad news:
Every hike at high altitude for you is different from the one before it.
There are only 2 kinds of hikers in the world:
I'm in the "don't" category, so when I go on hiking trips to areas where the trail head STARTS at 7,000 feet, I know I have to be smart about high altitude hiking.
Here is the plan I recommend to hikers who live at sea level, or at considerably lower elevations than the hikes they plan to tackle:
1. Choose your hiking itinerary carefully. Be moderate with your elevation goals and ramp up from there if all goes well the first few days.
2. Divide the number of days you plan to hike into three groups: easy acclimating walks, moderate elevation gain hikes, and, if you have enough time, hikes with several thousand feet of elevation gain and/or loss.
3. Be meticulous about knowing the elevation gain and loss of each hike you plan to do. And don't neglect to note the elevation at the trail head. Does it fit into your acclimation plans, or is it too aggressive?
4. Give yourself a day or two to acclimate to the trail head elevation by camping there, or staying somewhere nearby.
5. Don't deviate from your plan, just because you feel great. Things can change in a hurry (keep reading for details).
6. A rule that hikers use for sleeping at higher elevations is something along the lines of never sleeping higher than 1500 feet above where they began that morning.
These rules respect the hard work your body is doing for you!
Whatcha gonna do if you live in Chicago, and plan to hike to the top of a 14'er? (14,000 foot mountain, such as the top of Mt. Rainier, or peaks in Colorado and New Mexico)
You're going to plan time to acclimate at the beginning of your trip, as noted above.
But what else can you do to prepare your body for the stress of decreased oxygen availability?
Here are a few ideas, none of which are medical advice:
Your goal is to strengthen your heart, making it a more efficient pump to circulate your blood.
When you hike at higher altitudes, your lungs can't pull as much oxygen into your bloodstream so you need your heart to be able to distribute the less oxygenated blood efficiently.
Don't neglect the hard work of making your heart a better pump, and your lung capacity greater than it was at the beginning of your conditioning.
Your payoff: increased cardiovascular health.
It's one of the most important and far reaching benefits of hiking.
Because you are going to stress your body in order to condition it for more harsh conditions than you normally endure, a visit to your health care provider at the beginning of any vigorous conditioning regime is a great idea.
Include some blood work to uncover any potential issues with elevated cholesterol levels, vitamin deficiency, or electrolyte imbalances.
If you have zero experience with hiking at high elevations, you have no baseline on what to expect in high alpine conditions.
Be conservative on your first high altitude hiking trip, allowing your body to give you feedback about how it feels.
The higher you go, the higher the stakes if you keep going in the face of warning signs.
Warning signs to watch for on a high altitude hike:
From my own experience, you will begin to feel really weird, and you might have other people notice that you're acting weird, too.
At the first sign of trouble, turn around and descend slowly.
Don't talk yourself out of how you feel. Acknowledge that you're tanking, and turn around.
Although this should go without saying, I'm saying it anyway:
If you have a pre-existing medical condition involving your cardiovascular and/or respiratory system, you need to condition yourself to the fullest extent possible, and get a medical okay before tackling high altitude hiking.
There are 3 ways in which your body could react to being placed at a higher elevation than it normally encounters.
Each of them carries serious consequences.
1. Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS): Acute means it comes on quickly, and can also be resolved quickly if you spot it and descend.
The warning signs mentioned above are associated with AMS.
2. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE): The lungs fill with fluid (edema) and impair breathing to the point of coughing and chest pain.
This condition can quickly deteriorate into a life threatening situation.
That's why it's important to pay attention to small warning signs such as fatigue or shortness of breath that don't go away after resting or eating.
3. High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE): "Cerebral" means your brain has noticed that oxygen is in short supply, and the accumulating excess fluid is putting pressure on your precious soft brain tissue.
Unconsciousness can occur if HACE continues to build over hours or days.
For HAPE and HACE, immediate medical attention is required.
Remove pride from your itinerary.
If you have to turn around without bagging a peak or snapping a photo from the viewpoint, so be it.
The scenery isn't going anywhere.
Next time you can prepare more thoroughly, or give yourself more acclimation time.
And sometimes you find out that your body just isn't cut out for high altitude hiking.
I have seen prime physical specimens twenty years younger than myself succumb to acute mountain sickness.
Other times, I've been the one to say "not one more step upward".
There is no shame in turning around.
And if you're hiking with someone who says otherwise, find yourself a different trail buddy. They don't have your best interests at heart (or in his/her brain).
Shortness of breath can be compensated for with a slow but steady pace and deep even breathing, to a certain extent.
If you usually hike quickly, be smart enough to adopt a slower pace.
Keep track of your altitude gain, either by using an altimeter or by consulting your topographical map.
Check in with yourself before moving upward.
Really listen to the little niggly doubts or hesitations.
Example: Is your headache because you're squinting into the sun, or because you're dehydrated?
Are you exhausted because you started the hike with no breakfast, or because you need to eat more frequently in small amounts?
Is the pace too fast for the conditions, or merely too fast for you right now?
Or could you be experiencing the first symptom(s) of altitude sickness?
If you can't explain the way you're feeling with any other rational data, then face the facts: the altitude is messing with you and something(s) needs to change.
While hiking at high(er) altitudes, you encounter continuously changing terrain as you ascend.
Your 4 big concerns: rock, snow, ice and fickle weather conditions.
Pay attention to the cloud cover as the hours roll along.
Mountains create their own weather systems, and they don't give a lot of warning about changes.
So change your behavior when doing high altitude hiking.
Scan the sky for thickening clouds that are skudding along close to the ground.
Summer thunderstorms can roll in with unbelievable speed, and you're on exposed terrain. Know these lightning safety tips.
Be conservative in the face of atmospheric pressure changes that indicate a storm coming your way.
If you're on a route over rocks, be alert for instability as you take each step by placing your leading foot carefully before pushing off for the next step.
Watch and listen to the person in front of you; don't step where she did if she got a wobbler.
Don't ever rely on rock to stay put, even when they look solidly wedged underneath something.
If you're rock hopping across a talus field, be aware that there are holes between the rocks that you won't be able to see until you're right up to them.
Rockfall from above is a hazard, especially in areas with mountain goats.
If you know that other humans are above you, communicate with them so they know you're there.
If you're in a group of hikers, keep plenty of distance between you to minimize the risk of being hit by a falling rock.
Let's get the best tip front and center: the earlier you hit this type of terrain, the better.
If you have boot traction devices, put them on as soon as you hit the snow in anything other than soft snow conditions.
If you're kicking up a lot of snow, wear knee length gaiters to keep your legs and feet dry.
The strongest hiker(s) should kick steps into steep snowy slopes or when crossing soft snowfields with risk of sliding onto rocks; this makes it easier for less experienced or smaller hikers.
If you're a newbie, trust the judgment of more experienced high altitude hikers.
If you don't have any of those handy, stay off angled snowfields or icy slopes.
It will be tempting to use a snowfield for an easier approach to a high point (plus there's less chance of rockfall above you) because you can move faster than across rocks.
But if you lack an ice axe, crampons and proper technique, turn around.
The possibility of water flowing beneath snow and ice is high in alpine terrain, especially in the spring and summer.
The thickness and compactness of the snow is important to your safety.
When you see an obvious snow bridge across water, or hear water gurgling or rushing beneath your intended route, take precautions:
Everything looks good? Don't relax your vigilance.
Stay in the middle of the snow bridge as you cross.
Move slowly but deliberately, keeping your balance and putting even weight on your feet.
If it's a narrow bridge, hold both poles in your hands horizontally for balance.
Morning crossings are preferred, to capitalize on cooler night time temperatures. If you know you will be using the same route later in the day, scout for an alternative route before you go on.
The higher you hike, the more exposure to ultraviolet radiation you accumulate.
Your skin and eyes are not used to this amount of radiation, and a quick sunburn the outcome.
If your route takes you over snow and ice, be even more aggressive about sun protection by taking protective measures to safeguard your skin and eyes.
Here's a sobering fact about high altitude hiking: With every thousand feet of elevation gain, the air temperature drops by at least three degrees.
Be sure you've got enough clothing in your backpack to layer on.
You want to avoid getting chilled and adding to your altitude issues. You've chosen to ascend into winter conditions, so use these tips to guard your hands, feet and head:
You're working hard and may not notice that you need more layers, but your muscles will begin to complain.
Include a head and neck covering that can be lashed down tightly, in case the wind picks up.
Stay alert to hypothermia signs and symptoms, and take action immediately to reverse them.
As you climb higher, your ears and sinuses are tasked with equilibrating the pressure inside your head.
Here's something to think about:
If you are actively battling an infection like a cold or middle ear infection, you're going to have a harder time adapting to altitude changes.
Based on personal experience, you need to carefully consider whether your ear problems are going to hamper you on a high altitude hike.
The pivotal factor is the amount of time spent at altitude.
Consult your health care professionals about how to handle your plans, and get their advice on medications or self care strategies you can use during your hiking trip.
Here's a link to get you started.
Lots of things can happen to the human body on a hiking trail, and even more so at high altitude.
To be as prepared as you can be when you head up to the high zone, read up on how to cope with these issues as a hiker:
If you've read through this entire page, I'm guessing the answer is "Yes, I want to go for it!"
So take these four steps:
Some of the happiest hours of my life have been earned by slogging uphill to high elevations, such as Camp Muir on Mount Rainier (10,000 feet/3100 meters).
And some of my most miserable, queasy hikes have been at altitudes in Yellowstone that don't even come close to Camp Muir.
You just never know!
But now you know how to be smart about your plans for high altitude hiking.
High Altitude Hiking
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Photo credits: All photos on this website were taken by David Midkiff or Diane Spicer.
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