by Diane Spicer
Hiking calories: spend them freely.
So what does that mean?
It means prepare your body before each hike by eating adequate amounts of nutrients so you have a ready supply of hiking calories.
And during your hike, especially if it's uphill and hot, or long and cold, or anything other than a walk in the park, focus on your energy level.
That depends on who you ask.
Nutrition text books are filled with scientific definitions. I'll leave that for you to look up on Wikipedia (don't let the "kilocalorie" thing throw you).
To a hiker, a calorie is your ticket into the back country, or up to a view point.
It's the way your body "pays for" your movements, your breathing, your cellular repair of damage and injury, and your thinking process: all very important to a hiker, I'm sure you would agree!
A calorie translates into energy.
Hiking calories = hiking energy.
But there are different ways to get those energy sources into the human body (although all of them depend upon a healthy digestive system).
In the United States, we seem to be obsessed with calories - namely, avoiding too many of them.
As a result, our food packages have lots of information about calories.
Turn that wealth of information to your advantage!
By reading the labels, you can determine where your hiking calories are coming from: fat, carbohydrate, or protein.
And why do you care? Because that information translates directly into how you feel and perform on the trail.
In my humble opinion (I'm no expert), average hikers should lean toward more carbs than fats while on the trail for a steady supply of hiking calories.
But the day before, and the day after, a hike, you want a more balanced mix of calorie-supplying foods.
Let's turn now to more expert opinions on the right amount of calories for hikers.
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) recommends general dietary guidelines for what they call "athletes participating in a general fitness program": folks who exercise 30-40 minutes a day, at least 3 times per week.
They suggest that a "normal diet" of 1800 - 2400 calories a day (or 25-35 calories/kg/day for a 50 - 80 kg adult), should be giving you all the calories you need.
OK, that's fine for those of us who go for daily walks (a great habit to get into, year round, to keep your hiking muscles limber).
But what if you hike every week, for longer than 30 minutes at a crack?
Ah, that bumps you up into the category of "athletes involved in moderate levels of intense training".
ISSN recommends eating nutrient dense energy bars and high calorie carbohydrate/protein supplements to maintain energy during training -or hiking, as the case may be.
And now the question becomes: which ones?
I wish I knew the answer.
But I have some general thoughts to share.
Having taught university level biochemistry, I know a few things about what cells need to produce energy.
Skip this if you don't like biochemistry...
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is like dollar bills (or any other type of currency) to cells.
So if generating ATP is the goal, how do we help our cells make lots of it?
Give them oxygen and the necessary building blocks. How do we do that? Well, we're getting plenty of oxygen as we're hiking - notice how you breathe harder when you're working hard?
As for the building blocks, we need to eat smart.
That's where hiking calories come in.
Let's take a quick tour of our options as hikers.
Let's start with the ISSN recommendations about carbohydrate intake.
They feel confident that a person in the "general fitness program" category gets enough carbohydrates (carbs, or CHO's) through their regular meals - no need to add extras.
A diet composed of 45-55% CHO (3-5 grams/kg/day) should be plenty.
I don't know about you, but I don't tend to weigh my food before I eat it. So I'm not exactly sure if I'm getting the correct amount, but I rely upon my energy levels to let me know if I might need to eat more carbs.
And where should our carbs come from?
They recommend complex carbohydrates which are a bit slower to be pulled apart for energy, things like whole grains, vegetables and fruits.
I highly recommend quinoa, an ancient grain with a complete amino acid profile (highly unusual for a grain).
And to make things even more complicated, there are different types of carbohydrates, which should be ingested at different times. ISSN guidelines talk about that, too.
So let's translate this recommendation into a hiker's lunch.
Whole grain bread, a few finger foods such as carrot, celery, red pepper sticks, and some apple or orange wedges.
Caveat: In cold damp weather, cold damp finger foods are unappealing.
Turn to carb-dense foods like crackers, bread, bagels instead.
Read more about how to get fast energy through carbs here.
ISSN recommends 10-15% protein in your diet if you're getting regular exercise (0.8-1.0 grams/kg/day).
They throw in an interesting tidbit about older people (they don't define "older", unfortunately): they need a bit higher intake, say 1 - 1.2 g/kg/day.
And here's where you can put something between your slices of whole grain bread:
Oh, and about the protein: there are different types of them, too.
Pay attention to your sources of low fat, high quality proteins.
Here's a pristine source of powdered protein, useful for post-hike smoothies or a breakfast smoothie as you're driving to the trail head.
Backpackers could cart this along as a lightweight but protein packed addition to dried grains.
Not how much you have on your body, but rather how much and which types of fat you're eating.
ISSN guidelines indicate that a diet composed of 25-35% (0.5-1.5 grams/kg/day) will do the trick for moderately active people.
Are you beginning to see why food labels are a good idea?
At a glance, you can estimate your daily intakes and calculate whether your hiking calorie needs are being met.
Fat is a necessary building block for making energy, as well as storing up energy for future needs.
So some hiking calories absolutely must come from fats: oils and butters.
Counting grams of fat (again, the food labels!!) will give you a good idea if you're in the right range for meeting your energy needs.
So here's how to mix things up a little: add a bit of fat with sliced cheese on top of your turkey, or half an avocado on top of tuna, or buttered bread, or oil rich nuts.
Just don't over do it.
Fats are harder to digest, and could lead to digestive distress if you consume too many while hiking.
Plus, they easily convert to hard-to-miss fat deposits, especially for women.
So go heavy on the carbs, lighter on fats and proteins.
And don't neglect your electrolytes!
Isn't there a lot to think about in terms of hiking calories?
Experts can quantify it for you, but only your body knows if you're getting the right balance of nutrients.
Here's a way to figure out exactly what you need, nutrient wise, for your hiking trips.
Things to watch for as possible signs of inadequate nutrition for your activity levels:
*slow recovery times from a hike: days, not hours, to feel strong again.
*soreness that seems out of proportion to the hike.
*chronic injuries that just won't go away.
*lightheaded or dizzy sensations during your hike.
*delayed healing times for straightforward cuts or bruises.
*food cravings, indicating that your body is either begging for certain nutrients, or is allergic to something you're eating.
I recommend using a professional nutritionist for specific advice about your hiking calorie needs, if you're serious about being the best you can be on the trail.
It's also possible that you're sensitive to gluten in wheat, rye and barley products.
What to do?
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Photo credits: All photos on this website were taken by David Midkiff or Diane Spicer.
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